EKONOMI – Biaya Peluang

BIAYA PELUANG

1. Pengertian Biaya Peluang

        Biaya peluang ialah pengorbanan yang dilakukan seseorang karena menentukan suatu pilihan. Konsep biaya peluang ialah mendorong seseorang mengeluarkan pengorbanan tertentu dan meminimumkan resiko rugi agar memperoleh keuntungan sebesar-besarnya.

2. Biaya Peluang pada Tenaga Kerja

        Biaya peluang pada tenaga kerja ialah nilai kesempatan tenaga kerja dalam memproduksi barang dan jasa yang harus diabaikan karena memilih alternative memproduksi barang lain. Konsep dasar peluang tenaga kerja ialah ketebatasan sumber daya manusia dalam proses produksi secara bersamaan

 

3. CONTOH KONSEP DASAR PELUANG TENAGA KERJA

o) Perusahaan Rumah Tangga       

        Pada sebuah perusahaan Rumah Tangga Tedapat Lima tenaga kerja yang dipekerjakan untuk memproduksi bebepa makanan Seperti Keripik dan Roti.

Keripik dan Roti telah disurvei dalam masyarakat sebagai makanan yang digemari. Untuk itu dibuat pengombinasian Tenaga Kerja dengan Barang yang diproduksi agar diperoleh keuntungan yang besar.

Agar lebih jelas, perhatikan tabel sebagai berikut !

Tabel Kesempatan Tenaga Kerja dalam memproduksi Keripik dan Roti

TITIK Produksi

Jumlah Tenaga Kerja

Roti (Unit)

Jumlah Tenaga Kerja

Keripik (Unit)

A

0

0

5

100

B

1

15

4

90

C

2

35

3

75

D

3

55

2

45

E

4

65

1

20

F

5

75

0

0

Pada Tabel diatas menunjukkan Jumlah tenaga Kerja yang digunakan dalam proses produksi barang Kripik dan Roti.

Penjelasan nya sebagai Berikut :

Agar Lebih jelas, Perhatikan Kurva Kesempatan tenaga kerja dalam memproduksi keripik dan roti.

Kurfa biaya peluang

Pada Kurva tersebut diketahui bahwa :

  1. Pada Titik A  semua pekerja digunakan untuk memproduksi sebanyak  100 unit keripik. Akibatnya tidak ada pekerja yang memproduksi Roti sehingga jumlah roti 0 unit.
  1. Pada Titik produksi B,C,D,E merupakan Titik antara Roti dan Kripik.

Titik dimana para pekerja memproduksi keduanya secara bersamaan.

  1. Misalnya pada titik B yaitu Dengan menggunakan 1 tenaga kerja dapat memproduksi sebanyak 15 unit Roti dan Sisanya 4 tenaga kerja dapat memproduksi 90 unit Keripik.
  1. Sedangkan Titik C dengan menggunakan 2 tenaga Kerja dapat memproduksi 35 unit Roti, dan 3 tenaga kerjanya mampu memproduksi 75 unit Keripik
  2. Titik D menunjukkan 3 tenaga kerja dapat memproduksi sebanyak 55 unit Roti, Sedangkan 2 tenaga kerja dapat memproduksi sebanyak 45 Keripik.
  1. Titik E menunjukkan dengan menggunakan 1 tenaga kerja dapat menghasilkan 20 unit Keripik, dan 4 tenaga kerjanya dapat memproduksi 65 Roti.
  1. Seperti halnya Titik A, Titik F juga demikian, Pada Titik F semua pekerja digunakan untuk memproduksi sebanyak  75 unit Roti. Akibatnya tidak ada pekerja yang memproduksi Keripik atau jumlah keripik 0 unit.

Oleh karena itu Untuk memperoleh keuntungan yang besar dan mengurangi kerugian maka Perusahaan Rumah Tangga tersebut melakukan alternatif yaitu dengan cara mengombinasikan pemakaian tenaga kerja

Misalnya pengombinasian tenaga kerja berdasarkan survey pasar:

  1. Jika keadaan pasar normal / makanan Keripik dan Roti sama-sama dibutuhkan.

Perusahaan akan menggunakan Titik D dengan 3 tenaga kerja dapat memproduksi sebanyak 55 unit Roti, Sedangkan 2 tenaga kerja dapat memproduksi sebanyak 45 Keripik. Karena pada titik ini Jumlah produksinya hampir seimbang dibanding titik yang lain.

 

 

  1. Jika makanan Keripik lebih dicari dari pada Roti.

Perusahaan akan mengalihkan dari Titik A ke Titik C dengan mengurangi produksi Roti menjadi 35 unit Roti, dan menambah produksi Keripik menjadi 75 unit.

Namun Jika memilih A/B , walaupun produksi keripik nya lebih besar, akan tetapi seperti yang kita tahu bahwa kebutuhan manusia berbeda-beda. pasti akan ada pula yang membutuhkan Roti, maka di buat 2 tenaga keja untuk 35 unit Roti. dan tidak mungkin perusahaan tersebut memilih titik  D, E, dan F yang produksinya lebih menonjol dari pada produksi roti.

Jika Perusahaan memilih D, E perusahaan tidak akan mendapat untung namun bisa saja malah sebaliknya mendapat kerugian. Apalagi jika memilih titik F yang tidak memproduksi keripik, dan memproduksi begitu banyak roti sedangkan makanan keripik lebih dicari dibanding roti, sehingga roti yang diproduksi semua kemungkinan besar tidak laris terjual yang akan menimbulkan banyak kerugian.

  1. Jika makanan Roti Lebih dicari dari pada Keripik. Maka perusahaan akan mengalihkan dari Titik A ke Titik E dengan mengurangi produksi keripik menjadi 20 unit, dan menambah produksi Roti menjadi 65 unit. Namun Jika memilih F , walaupun produksi Roti lebih besar, Haruslah ada stok Keripik jika nantinya dibutuhkan.

 

Dengan alternative tersebut proses produksi dan penjualan akan menjadi efisien, dan tenaga kerja akan sanggup dan tidak merasa terbebani karena jumlah produksi tidak melebihi batas minimum kemungkinan produksi.

 

—- SEKIAN & TERIMA KASIH —-

 

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ENGLISH EXAMPLE

English

NARRATIVE

 

The Legend of Lake Toba

 

Once upon time there lived a young fisherman in north Sumatra. His name was Toba. In the other place, lived a beautiful girl who cursed of her father turned into gold fish.

One day a fisherman went to sea. However, the weather was worst to him. There were thunderbolt, cloudy, and down pour. But he would him wanted. After the fisherman in the middy of sea, the thunderbolt hited the small boat and he unconcioused.

In the morning, he found himself in the edge land. In the strange land, he not found anything exception a fishing rod. Then he begined to fishing Shortly, the fisherman caught a gold fish who could talk. The gold fish said “Please , don’t eat me!”. The fisherman entered the fish into the box. Since that moment, they became an intimate friend.

After several days in the strange land, the fisherman make a raft. When he slept, the raft suddenly turned a boat. Because the raft turned by a gold fish. The fish was a beautiful girl who cursed into a gold fish.

After he woke up, he astonished to him raft. “Why the raft turned a boat?”, said the fisherman. Then he begined to went home and brought him gold fish. He decided went to other land to caught the other job. He became a farmer.

Before he turned a success farmer. He hadn’t capital. He just make a house with wood. But, when he rich, he had a beautiful house with pond.

Unfortunately, he hadn’t wife. While he went home after worked. He saw a beautiful girl did sweep the floor and cooking. The beautiful girl was a gold fish. Toba falled in love with the girl. Finally they married and had one children. The name was Samosir. Samosir was naughty children. Every time the father was angry with the behavior of him children and punished him. But, the mother afraid while the husband said if the children was a fish child. The wife dislike ate a fish. Because she was a gold fish.

The next day, Toba had been in the fultivation rice field. He was very hungry. The mother command Samosir to brought the food for the father in the field. In the way, Samosir tiredly ran fast. So, he falled the food at the land. He just brought diner pail.

After Samosir arrived to the rice field, he gived the food to the father. And Toba was angry and said “ Oh you fish child!”.

Suddenly the sky cloud and down pour. And came thunderbolt who hited something. Samosir cried and ran fast. The father searched him child and would sorry. The mother also went to searched her husband and the children. Because she saw the strange sky. Toba falled to the valley. And Samosir falled him body to the valley too. And The mother explained both to the valley with turned her body became a gold fish.

Finally the land shape to a large water and the middy there was a land. Every people called the lake was lake Toba and the land was a samosir. Every people sure in the lake there was a gold fish.

 

RECOUNT

REMEMBERING KEVYN

 

 

             I had the great honor of being able to call Kevyn Aucoin, my friend. He was not only a magnificent artist, but more important, magnificent human being. My older sister, Liza Minneli, introduced us in 1991. We instantly hit it off.

Kevyn did my make-up for photo shoot with my sister and for the 1993 Tony Awards. But I will always remember the day we spent together in my bathroom. Kevyn taught me how to do my own make-up. He told me to stop plucking my eyebrows every five minutes and, as we were finishing, he made a list of what he used. I asked him to come to Bloomingdale’s with me, fully expecting him to say “No,” but he said he’d love to and off we went. By 6.30 p.m., we had shopped our brains out and laughed so much that we were exhausted. I got into a cab and kissed him good-by.

Over the years, I’d also buy Allure every month to read his column. His work has truly made make-up as important as fashion.

Spending time with Kevyn was like being hugged. He was an angel and all of us who knew him were lucky.

Lorna luft

Beverly hills

 

DESCRIPTIVE

THE BOROBUDUR TEMPLE

 

 

             Borobudur is a Hindu-Buddhist temple built in the 9th century under the Syailendra dynasty of Java. It is located near Magelang, on the island of Java, Indonesia.

Abandoned in the 11th century and partially excavated by archaeologists in the early 20th century, Borobudur temple is well-known all over the world.

Influenced by the Gupta architecture of India, the temple is constructed on a hill 46 m (150 ft) high and consist of eight-step like stone terraces, one on top of the other.

The first five terraces are square and surrounded by walls adorned with Buddhist sculpture in bas-relief; the upper three are circular, each with a circle of bell-shaped stupas (Buddhist shrines).

The entire edifice is crowned by a large stupa at the center of the top circle. The way to the summit extends through some 4.8 km of passages and stairways.

The design of Borobudur, a temple-mountain symbolizing the structure of the universe, is similar to the temples built at Angkor, Cambodia.

The Borobudur temple, rededicated as an Indonesian national monument in 1983, is a valuable treasure for Indonesian people.

PERMIT LETTER

Batang, 27 April 2010

The honorable Teacher

In the place

The commonly this letter, I ask that my son :

Name : ebeatwenty0ne

No                   : 21

Class         : Che

To ask for a permit couldn’t follow the lesson in this day because sick. For your permission I say thank you.

Students Parent

Masrukin

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